Beans in detail
Beans by nutritional value are strategic crops and are among the top ten most healthy vegetables. The amino acid and protein composition of beans is close to the proteins of meat and fish and in extreme conditions can replace them. Bean proteins are absorbed by the body by 75%, being a building and energy material for it. One of the few crops that is not used raw, but when cooked hot and preserved, it retains up to 70% of the vitamins and 80% of the minerals that make up the beans. Having such a high nutritional potential, beans are used not only as a food crop, but are used in official and traditional medicine, helping to cure a large list of diseases.
Bean origin and distribution
The first mention of this wonderful culture dates back to the years BC. More accurate information refers to 5000 g BC. Place of origin is called South and Central America. In Russia, beans appeared around the 16th century, first as an ornamental flower culture, and from the 18th century. firmly took a place in the kitchen as a vegetable crop, delighting housewives and cooks with an endless variety of nutritious dishes with excellent taste.
Briefly about bean biology
Beans (Phaseolus) in the plant system belongs to the family bean (Fabaceae) Contains about 90 species, among which typical Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Under natural conditions it grows in warm areas of Europe and Asia. It is cultivated in open ground in the southern and adjacent areas of the European and warm regions of the Asian part of Russia.
Haricot Bean is an annual herbaceous plant with a branching root root, 0.5 to 3.0 m high, bushy or climbing.
Bean stems are branched, covered with sparse hairs. The leaves are intensely green in various shades, ternate long-leaved. In the axils of the leaves are flowers.
Bean flowers are irregular moths, 2-6 in a rare brush. Coloring of sepals: white, cream, pink, lilac, purple, violet, gives the plants an elegant look and is often used simultaneously as a food and decorative culture in summer cottages and adjoining areas.
Bean fruit - bicuspid bean (not a pod). Seeds in the form of beans, separated inside each other by incomplete partitions.
The bean fruit is straight or curved, 5-20 cm long and 1.0-2.0 cm wide, contains from 3 to 8 bean seeds of different colors and sizes inside. In appearance, the bean resembles a boat. From Greek it is translated as "boat, shuttle." Beans and young bean shoulder blades are used for food.
Beans are a short-day plant with a light period of not more than 12 hours with good light intensity. To get a good bean crop, you can find out data on the length of daylight hours at the nearest weather station or in the local calendar.
In the conditions of a short day, the culture quickly proceeds to fruiting and forms a high yield. In regions with a long daylight hours and a suitable climate for beans, early beans are sown in the second half of summer (July) or the lighting is artificially shortened by covering the beds with frames with opaque coating material after a 12 hour period and opened on the second day with sunrise.
It should be noted that beans impose strict requirements on the length of the day only at the beginning of the growing season, later they grow and bear fruit normally under conditions of prolonged illumination. Some modern bean varieties, bred for moderate and northern latitudes by Russian breeders, are neutral to daylight hours and grow with equal success and form crops under short and long light.
Planting beans in open ground
Southern culture does not tolerate cold weather, therefore, sowing is carried out when the soil in the upper 10 cm layer warms up to +12 .. + 14 ºС and the threat of spring return frosts passes. Approximately to sowing bush beans, they begin during the mass flowering of chestnut, and curly - 7-10 days later. In the south, beans can be planted as a second crop after harvesting early vegetables.
Typically, beans are planted, depending on the variety, in several stages with an 8-12 day break. This allows you to extend the period of harvesting.
Since the intensity of lighting is important for beans, the planting site is chosen far from tall trees to avoid shading, and without drafts. Blowing in a light breeze will not hurt.
Beans are a self-pollinated crop; therefore, different varieties with different ripening periods can be sown on the same bed.
Like other legumes, beans themselves are good predecessors, especially on depleted soils, saturating them with nitrogen. Beans improve the physical properties of the soil with a deeply penetrating branched root system. Beans are returned to the cultural circulation in their original place after 4-5 years and they are not planted after legumes. The best crops that beans will go for next year (predecessors) are carrots, beets, onions, cucumbers, early cabbage, early and medium tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, potatoes.
Preparing the soil for beans
For normal development, the culture needs neutral soil (pH = 6-7), permeable, fertile, light in physical composition. It does not tolerate beans with prolonged moisture and high nitrogen content in the soil. In the right quantities, beans extract nitrogen from the air. If the soil is clayey, heavy, cultivators contribute - humus, mature compost, sand, and other cultivating mulch. Application rates are per square meter. m of 8-12 kg of humus or 4-8 kg of mature compost.
With borderline acidity of the soil, 40-50 g / sq. Dolomite flour is introduced from the autumn for its deoxidation. m. Of mineral fertilizers under the autumn digging, ammophoska of 30-40 g square is used. You can use ammophos or kemira in the same doses. Any complex fertilizer on whose packaging is marked is suitable (for autumn or autumn application). Beans respond well to alkaline fertilizers, so in the fall you can make 100 g / sq. m of ash for digging or in the spring when preparing the soil for sowing beans.
Beans retain their germination capacity up to 700 years (according to literary sources). Home or purchased beans will always be viable. If you select a full-fledged, the seedlings are friendly, and the seedlings are strong and highly viable.
The most common scheme for planting bush beans is ordinary. Beans are placed to a depth of 5-6 cm after 20-25 cm. Between the rows leave 30-40 cm, depending on the variety. Curling varieties, in connection with the formation of a large above-ground mass, are less common: 3 sometimes 4 holes per meter with a row distance of at least 50 cm. Shoots appear on the 6th - 10th day. Several beans are placed in the hole and after germination 2-3 sprouts are left. Seedlings can be planted. After planting the beds are compacted and watered. To speed up the emergence of seedlings, planting can be covered with lutrasil or film.
Beans do not like high humidity, but they need an increased amount of air. Therefore, the soil under the beans should be constantly loose and clean from weeds. The first cultivation is carried out when the beans reach 6-7 cm in height, the second - simultaneously with the earthing up, is performed in 12-14 days. The third loosening is carried out before closing the rows.
If the bushes or curly shoots have grown greatly, you can cut out some of the leaves, destroy the planting. In some thickened plantings, individual bushes are removed from the garden. This is a feature of beans. She needs a sufficient amount of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases for the normal functioning of the roots and leaves in order to provide nutrition to the emerging fruits of this culture.
If the bushes quickly gain growth and little branch, their tops must be pinched. This technique will facilitate branching, and therefore increase the yield, and accelerate its ripening. Usually pinch 3-5 cm, depending on the speed of growth and the size of the bush.
Bean Watering Dates
After germination and before the phase of 4-5 leaves, the beans are watered so that the soil is moist. From 4-5 leaves and before the start of budding, watering is practically stopped. By about 2-3 days of June, beans enter the budding phase. During this period, she needs an increased amount of water. Watering is carried out once a week. But if the soil surface is wet, watering is delayed for 1-2 days. In the phase of mass flowering, the irrigation rate and frequency are increased almost 1.5-2.0 times. As the blades grow during the transition to maturation, irrigation is again reduced and gradually stopped. Irrigation is carried out with warm, settled water. Changes in soil temperature when watering with cold water (from a well, artesian) adversely affect the formation of the crop.
Summer bean top dressing
Beans are fed 2-3 times during the growing season.
The first top dressing is carried out during the formation of the first pair of true leaves. Phosphoric or phosphoric-potassium fertilizers are usually introduced at 30 and 15-20 g / sq., Respectively. m
The second is performed during the period of mass budding - the beginning of flowering. At this stage, beans need an increased amount of potassium, better than chloride at 15-20 g / sq. m, for faster delivery of nutrients to plant organs. You can replace potash fat with wood ash (a glass per sq. M).
The third top dressing during fruit ripening is carried out, if necessary, again with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in a dose of 25-35 and 15-20 g / sq., Respectively. m square. It is impossible to feed beans with nitrogen. Intensive biomass growth will begin to the detriment of crop formation.
Bean garter is necessary only for curly asparagus varieties. They are used as food in technical ripeness in the form of whole bean-shoulder blades and in biological - with full ripening of bean-beans. Delicate, with a sweet taste, they are used in many dishes. They are grown on trellises, pulling rows of wire, thick twine or a special coarse mesh. Some vegetable growers, in order not to mess with the poles, simply drive 1.5-2.0 m stakes near the bush or carry out nesting around the central stake, sending twisted stems of 3 - 5 bushes along the twine to it.
Bean Protection Against Disease
The main diseases of beans are fungal, bacterial rot and viral diseases.
There are no effective drugs to combat viral diseases. Ill plants destroy. The viral disease is distinguished from others by dwarfism of the plant, mosaic coloring in the form of interspersed in the main color of the leaf (mosaic), wrinkling of leaves, sometimes bloating in the form of bubbles. For cultivation in household plots and cottages, robust and Corbett resistant mosaic varieties are recommended.
White and gray bean rot
White rot affects stalks and beans of a bean. The main signs are the appearance of white mycelium, which is accompanied by whitening and softening of diseased tissues. Unlike white, the manifestation of gray rot begins with a grayish coating, which gradually envelops the stems and leaves, causing rot. The end result of the disease is the death of plants.
Root rot affects seedlings, in which the tip of the main root dries up, and in adult plants growth stops, leaves turn yellow and fall off. Flowers and ovaries also fall.
Like other legumes, beans are affected by powdery mildew. On the affected leaves, the mycelium of the fungus appears in the form of a white powdery coating or resembles a cloth sprinkled with flour. Over time, the affected organs, including the stems, turn yellow and dry.
Fungal Disease Control Measures
The success of the fight against fungal diseases depends on the quality of preventive work related to:
- with cleaning of post-harvest residues and tops on garden beds,
- sowing with healthy, necessarily disinfected seeds,
- the timely conduct of all agricultural practices when caring for the crop,
- use rot-resistant varieties, including Turchan, Rant, Triumph sugar 764, Viola and others.
When planting beans, when growing a small amount in open or closed ground, the use of chemicals is not recommended.
If an unforeseen outbreak of the disease immediately spread to a large number of plants, then copper-containing preparations can be used. Sprinkle the beans before flowering 1-2 times with a 10-day break of 1% Bordeaux liquid. After flowering, you can repeat the spraying if necessary only late varieties, since the waiting time after treatment with Bordeaux liquid is 25-30 days.
Of the other drugs, biofungicides are well resistant to fungal diseases. These biological products are developed on the basis of living beneficial microorganisms. They do not harm humans, animals, beneficial insects. They need to spray the plants systematically in 10-12 days. 1-2-3 spraying may not be effective, as well as increasing the concentration of the spray solution. The waiting period for these drugs is from 1 to 3-5 days. All necessary output data are written in recommendations, on a label or other accompanying document.
From biofungicides, bipreparations are recommended:
- Fitosporin - treat seeds, soil and plants. Processing begins when the plants reach 10-15 cm in height. Repeat after 12-20 days if there was no rain.
- Mikosan - effective in the initial stages of the disease. At a later date, it is better to switch to other biological products.
- Gamair, Alirin-B, which successfully protect bean plants from rot, anthracnose, powdery mildew.
- Bactofit successfully destroys powdery mildew.
- Trichodermin destroys up to 60 soil fungal pathogens. Used in the fight against root rot.
- An aqueous solution of colloidal sulfur is used against powdery mildew and anthracnose.
The article describes the most common diseases and drugs used to protect plants. Almost every year, scientists offer new, more effective and gentle chemical and biological products, lists of which are printed in special journals and on the Internet.
Pest Protection Beans
The most common pest of green plants is the aphid, which is also a carrier of fungal diseases, thrips, a spider mite, a pea moth, and ripe beans are actively devoured by bruchus (pea weevil) and pea weevils. Bean slugs and a number of pests from the group of polyphagous are damaged.
The slugs can be collected and physically destroyed by placing pieces of cardboard, rags, burlap and other wastes of covering materials in the aisles. There they hide at night and from the scorching rays of the sun. You can dust the soil around plants with lime or ash. This technique will scare away slugs.
The fight against aphids on beans is carried out with the same preparations as in other crops. Use infusions of onion husks, celandine, walnut leaves, tomato tops, green or laundry soap (not bleaching), tobacco infusions, celandine.
Against thrips, a powdery biological product Boverin is used, from which, according to the recommendations, a working solution is prepared and plants are sprayed. Processing is repeated after 7-10 days at least 3 times.The most effective treatments at high humidity, when the revitalization and germination of fungal spores is accelerated. In dry weather, plants are pre-watered.
Thrips and ticks are effectively destroyed by a solution of kerosene (2-5 ml per 10 liters of water). Stir the working solution thoroughly and sprinkle the plants.
Against other pests (aphids, spider mites, pea moths, whiteflies), biological products are used: Haupsin, Bikol, Boverin, Verticillin and others. They are effective against thrips, ticks, whiteflies. The best is haupsin. It is effective simultaneously against fungal diseases and pests during the growing season. It can be used almost until the biological ripeness of the crop.
Cereals (bean, pea caryopsis) damage beans directly. Cereals die at low temperatures. To preserve the food product, the grain is placed in linen bags soaked in salt water and dried. There you can put a head of garlic. Store in the refrigerator until frost, and in winter in an unheated room with a negative temperature. Other methods of preserving grain include:
Put the grain in the freezer. At -12 ºС, adult beetles and pest eggs die within an hour.
Keep the grain in the oven at +90 ºС for several minutes. Pests die. In the future, store the grain in glass jars with ground lids (not plastic) in a cold room.
Bean shoulder blades for use in food are harvested 2 weeks after flowering. Young blades are cut with scissors in the morning every 2-3 days. Store in the refrigerator. Shelf life no more than 2 weeks. Prepare sauces, soups, side dishes for meat and other dishes.
Beans are harvested in full biological maturity. Dry bushes are cut, and the root is left in the soil. Decaying, it will enrich the soil with nitrogen and other nutrients.
Cut bean bushes are tied into loose bushes and suspended in a draft for drying. After 10-12 days, husk the grain and save it with the methods described above.
Varieties of beans for growing in the country
When growing beans in open ground, it is necessary to choose varieties like this. so that they fit the climatic conditions of the area.
By maturity, beans, like other vegetables, are divided into early, middle and late. Early varieties of beans form a biological crop within 65-75 days from germination, medium - 75-90-100 and later - 100 or more days. In private households, it is best to grow early and medium beans with a growing season of not more than 75 days.
By taste, the beans are divided into several groups:
- grain (peeling), for constant use and conservation,
- asparagus (sugar), for fresh summer use and conservation of blades,
In hulled varieties, a wax layer forms on the bean cusps; in sugar (asparagus) layers, it is absent. Characteristic of many sugar varieties is the absence of hard fibers on the leaves of the scapula, which makes it especially tender. In semi-sugar wax layer is formed late or is clearly underdeveloped.
Considering that beans are a self-foiling culture, you can plant different varieties of bush and creeper nearby.
Cereal Bean Varieties
In the Siberian regions, in the Far East and in the middle zone of Russia, the recommended peeling varieties are Early ripening, North Star, Swallow.
Of sugar varieties are more in demand Green and Green 517, Triumph sugar 764.
Semi-sugar grades - Moscow white, Gribovskaya-92.
In the middle lane, medium-ripened beans are not grown grain, as it does not have time to ripen. Only early and early ripe varieties are suitable for this region. Of the middle ones, only varieties with a short growing season related to mid-season can be used for growing.
In the southern regions, all kinds of beans are grown in open ground.
Recommended hull varieties are Sugar Triumph, Sugar -116, Sax, Dialogue, Glowworm, Antoshka, Jubilee-287 other. Young blades and mature grains of biological ripeness are used for food.
Of the winding varieties, the varieties are best known and used in decorative and vegetable planting. Lambada, Winner, Gerda, Golden nectar, Mauritanian, Turk, Fatima other.
From medium in the country you can grow a good harvest of varieties
- Gribovskaya-92 bush variety, forms a crop of biological ripeness in 90 days.
- Mistress's dream, mid-season with broad yellow bean pods and white grain.
- Ballad average maturity. Bean pods are green, and the grain is beige with purple dots.
- Ruby mid-season grade. Interesting in cherry-colored grain.
Among early and medium-sized husked or grain varieties, others are also popular, zoned for the climatic conditions of the region Barbara, Lilac, Generous, BrightUfa Fantasy, Welt, Swallow other.
Varieties of sugar (vegetable) beans
Sugar (asparagus) bean varieties are also called vegetable. They differ from the grain in the absence of a parchment layer inside the bean shoulder blade. These varieties are used in food along with a green tender shovel. It has the ability to remove excess moisture from the body and is often included in the diet menu. Early varieties of this group can be grown in all regions that meet the requirements of the culture.
Early grades: Melody, precocious, curly. Each stalk forms up to 9 flat shoulder blades. The oil king is an early, delicate, curly. The shoulder blades are yellow. For fans of mushrooms, we can recommend the climbing grade Ad Rem. Its fruits have a pleasant mushroom taste, which is preserved and enhanced in hot dishes (soups, sauces).
Of the other early ripening, vegetable growers use the triumph sugar, Dialog, Sugar-116, Vestochna.
Medium: Crane, growing in the form of a compact 50 cm bush. The blades are green. Forms a high yield.
The purple queen forms dark purple blades up to 15 cm long. The variety is highly resistant to viral diseases. Always high yielding.
Sugar Bean Varieties
From semi-sugar candies, an early ripe variety of Secunda is popular with vegetable growers. Rant high-yielding variety resistant to anthracnose and other rot. An early-ripening Indiana variety that produces two crops in the south per season. Often there are planting varieties Nastena, Antoshka and others.
Considering that about 300 varieties of beans of different types and groups have been bred, these varieties make up a small part. Any grower can choose the variety he likes from the catalog, grow and independently select seeds for subsequent planting.