What are bacterial fertilizers?
As you know, the saturation of the soil with a variety of elements and the presence of bacteria in it are dependent phenomena. So, if there are few bacteria in the soil, then the growth of plants, even if there are a sufficient number of different elements in the soil, will become slower, and they will develop atypically, incorrectly. To eliminate the deficiency of bacteria in the soil, special fertilizers called bacterial are applied to the soil. These fertilizers belong to the category of absolutely safe for humans and animals and harmless to the environment.
- Types of bacterial fertilizers
- Biological fertilizers
- Mycorrhizal inoculants
- Biological Remedies
- EM preparations
- The effectiveness of bacterial fertilizers
- Azotobacterin - a bacterial fertilizer
- Nikfan - a fertilizer from bacteria
- EM preparations
These fertilizers are drugs called scientifically called microbiological inoculants that improve the nutrition of all plants, without exception. The most interesting thing is that there are no nutrients in the composition of the bacterial fertilizers themselves, however, as soon as they get into the soil, they begin to normalize the biochemical processes occurring in it, therefore, plant nutrition becomes more high-quality and complete.
Types of bacterial fertilizers
So, microbiological inoculants, despite a complex phrase, are ordinary biological preparations that have live cultures in their composition, for example, like yogurt. Such fertilizers can be used to treat seeds during sowing, and to bring them into the soil during the season, like the usual root top dressing.
All inoculants are usually divided into several groups - these are actually biological fertilizers, as well as phytostimulants, mycorrhizal inoculants and products intended for biological plant protection.
We will analyze these groups in more detail, we will start with biological fertilizers. These fertilizers contain nodule bacteria that are found on the roots of legumes and some shrubs, such as sea buckthorn. The action of nodule bacteria is to significantly increase the availability of both mineral and organic compounds, therefore, plants will always experience a wealth of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and of course, zinc.
We go further - phytostimulants, these are also biological fertilizers, however, they literally synthesize plant growth activators, that is, phytohormones. These substances lead to accelerated growth of plant organisms and the development of a complete root system in combination with the vegetative mass.
Another group is mycorrhizal inoculants; these inoculants include various fungi that form mycelial hyphae. Thus, the absorbent ability of the root system of the plants themselves is increased, therefore, the plant receives a greater amount of nutrients, and accordingly, it develops better, blooms more actively and gives full annual crops.
Biological remedies are a good substitute for chemicals. Most often, however, biological remedies are used to enhance immunity, and, consequently, the prevention of various diseases. The basis of biological protection is usually bacteria, in which the antagonistic properties are most pronounced. These bacteria are most effective against infections that occur on crops, but they can also be used on fruits, berries, and vegetables.
EM preparations contain living organisms. The annual introduction of these drugs into the soil will allow, ultimately, to restore its fertility, wasted by many years of use. When using EM preparations, the yield increases, the taste of the fruits improves, and the periods of their storage increase. If you treat plants with EM drugs, then they increase immunity and resistance to both diseases and pests.
The effectiveness of bacterial fertilizers
Bacterial fertilizers were widely used immediately after their symbiotic interaction with plants of the legume family was revealed. These bacteria take oxygen from the air and synthesize nitrogen, which the plants absorb, while the same ones feed the bacteria. Modern industry now synthesizes and implements nodule bacteria, the most famous of which are rhizotorfin and nitragin.
This drug was first obtained in Germany, it is positioned as top dressing specifically for representatives of the legume family. The drug is based on nodule bacteria, which we described above, they are synthesized in the laboratory. This drug can be made both in briquettes and in the form of a powder (grayish in color, with a moisture content of not more than seven percent), or in the form of a liquid.
It is interesting that this drug does not just lie on the shelf of the store and is waiting for your purchase, do not forget that it is alive, so nitragin is stored in a special storage device - this is such a substance, consisting of compost of legumes, straw, peat, charcoal and a number of elements.
When this preparation is introduced into the soil, the nodule bacteria contained in it are attached to the root hairs of legumes and form nodules, and in these nodules their reproduction occurs.
A similar preparation can be obtained independently, for which you need to take legumes, specifically their root system, remove all soil from the roots, wash the roots with water and dry in a room without light. After this, the root system needs to be well chopped, and you will get a kind of nitragin completely free.
It is important to know that nitragin, just like what you can get at home from the roots of legumes, can be used only for plants that are members of the legume family.
This biological fertilizer has sterile peat in its composition, this allows nodule bacteria to remain alive and active for a rather long period of time. Modern rhizotrophin preparations, however, are produced not only on the basis of peat, but also in a fluid state. To create rhizotorfin under industrial conditions, it is necessary to dry peat at one hundred degrees Celsius, then grind it, turning it into a powder.
You can neutralize this powder with ordinary chalk, after which by adding water to increase the moisture content of the powder to 35-45 percent, and then the resulting mixture can be placed in sealed containers. It remains only on a special installation to irradiate this mixture with gamma rays and add nodule bacteria to the composition using an ordinary syringe, and the drug will be completely ready for sale, and, of course, for incorporation into the soil.
By the way, about the introduction: the dosage of this drug is very small, so, per hectare it needs no more than two hundred grams. As we already mentioned, this fertilizer is also available in liquid form, it is clear that this is not a ready-made working solution, but something like a syrup, which must be diluted with water. The standards are the same, but if you decide to soak the seeds in the original solution, then you need to literally a couple of drops per liter, then you need to soak the gauze with the resulting solution and soak the seeds in it for a day. You can not soak the seeds, but simply treat them with such a solution (both on the day of sowing and 15-20 hours before it).
By the way, this drug can be made at home, but first you need to make a “sourdough”. To do this, in the summer period, you should take the tank and place there very finely chopped plant mass, filling about a third of the tank. It remains to close the container tightly and set it in a well-lit place. After a few days, the mixture will begin to ferment and a very unpleasant smell of rot will appear.
As soon as you feel it, then open the lid and fill the tank to the top with water, which is needed to ripen the starter. After filling the tank with water, you need to wait about 9-11 days in warm weather, and 15-20 days in cool weather, after which the mixture must be diluted with water, mix very well to the most homogeneous composition and pour into a compost hole. That's basically all: this substance can then be taken from the pit and used.
Do not forget that both rhizotorfin and nitragin are intended for fertilizing the soil exclusively for legumes.
Azotobacterin - a bacterial fertilizer
This drug can be safely called the real nitrogen top dressing. This fertilizer happens to be soil, peat and dry. The most interesting, in our opinion, is dry matter, in fact, it is cells that have a series of auxiliary components. The sequence of actions in the production of this fertilizer is not much different from those in the manufacture of nitragin.
However, the growth of cultures, the so-called initial components of the drug, takes place on exclusively nutritious soil, in which iron sulfate, manganese sulfate and a molybdenum acid salt are added in advance. Further, the dry preparation in its final state is simply distributed in packages. Do not forget that this drug can be stored for only ninety days and always at a temperature not higher and not lower than 14-16 degrees above zero.
It is noteworthy that soil and peat azotobacterins carry a culture of bacteria that can reproduce exclusively in a solid medium. In order to produce this fertilizer, ordinary soil or peat is taken as the basis, then the resulting substrate is sieved very well to obtain the most homogeneous mass and 0.1% superphosphate and 2% ordinary lime are added to it.
The next step is to pack the product in bottles with a capacity of 500 g, add water to them until the humidity level is 45-55% and close the bottles with cotton plugs. The final step is sterilization. Next, to prepare the material for sowing, you need to use ordinary agar-agar, with the obligatory addition of various mineral salts and sugars to it.
The previously obtained mixture is simply transferred to the prepared nutrient medium and then grown under sterile conditions to the desired volume. This drug can be used for 60 days, sometimes a little more.
Why use azotobacterin? It is good for enriching compost, for increasing the growth activity of seeds and strengthening the immunity of seedlings. According to consumer reviews, the use of this drug can increase yield by more than ten percent.
By the way, few people know that with this drug in the form of a powder you can safely sprinkle grain, but the liquid solution is used to process potato tubers and root system of seedlings during planting. For one hectare, only 150 g of the substance and only 50 liters of this solution are needed.
It is clear that the base here is not nitrogen, but phosphorus. The bacteria of this drug have the form of sticks, which convert complex phosphorus compounds contained in the soil into simple ones, that is, those that plants can absorb from the soil without problems. In addition, this drug when it enters the soil can stimulate the formation of various biologically active substances, which will enhance the growth processes of plants.
The production technology of phosphobacterin is not much different from that in the manufacture of azotobacterin, as well as nodule bacteria. However, here the nutrient medium is formed from corn, molasses, water, chalk and ammonium sulfate. In general, the cultivation takes, as a rule, two days, and its result is the biomass of cells that remains to be passed through a centrifuge and dried. Next, you need to mix the dry material obtained with the filler, pack it in bags and you can sell it.
Phosphobacterin is an ideal preparation for fertilizing chernozem soils, because they have enough organic substances that contain phosphorus. A significant, up to 30%, increase in the yield of potatoes, a wide variety of crops and table beets was noted when using this drug.
If you want to treat the seeds with this preparation before sowing, then it must be mixed with soil or wood ash in a ratio of one to forty. In order to fertilize the soil, a very small dose of the drug is needed per hectare - only five grams.
The processing of potato tubers is carried out in the following composition: 15 grams of this substance are diluted in 15 liters of water and sprayed from the tuber sprayer before planting. An increase in potato yield after such processing up to ten percent was noted.
Nikfan - a fertilizer from bacteria
An absolutely safe fertilizer, which belongs to the category of substances of microbiological synthesis of producer fungi with a pronounced stimulating effect. This drug is produced in liquid form. What are the benefits of using this drug? It activates the processes of photosynthesis, stimulates the growth of the root system, leaf mass, shoots, helps to increase the size of the fruit (and even their number), increases the resistance of plants to lack of moisture and frost, strengthens their immunity and increases resistance to diseases and pests.
In addition, the drug can be used to increase seed germination, especially with long shelf life, to improve the formation of the root system of green cuttings when they are rooted, with it you can accelerate the ripening of fruits and berries and increase the yield of fruit, berry and vegetable crops up to 50%.
Usually use this drug to improve the composition of the soil two or three times, starting with sowing seeds and ending with the ripening period of the crop. Seeds can be soaked in a working solution of the drug or processed immediately before sowing, plants are usually treated as foliar top dressing. Usually, only one and a half milliliter of this fertilizer is needed per hectare.
Now a large number of EM preparations are sold with a different principle of exposure to the soil. Well-proven drug such as "Baikal-EM1", there are more than six dozen pure strains of various microorganisms living in symbiosis. The composition of this drug contains lactic acid bacteria and yeast, fermenting fungi and actinomycetes, as well as a number of other components. Prior to application to the soil, all microorganisms of the drug are at rest and in a liquid medium. In order for them to become active, they must be introduced into the ground.
Thanks to the use of an EM preparation, the development of pathogens is inhibited, the amount of toxins that may be present in the soil is reduced, and its fertility is restored. Among other things, the drug stimulates the growth and development of plants, accelerates their maturation.
EM preparations "Radiance" and "Shine-1" - Suitable for both foliar and root dressings, they are able to actively process organics in the substrate, isolating and making available the necessary components for plants, which leads to increased yields and improved taste qualities of the products. Thanks to the effects of these preparations, humus is formed, and various organic wastes are composted in 60-70 days, almost not emitting an unpleasant odor.
Since any soil turns into depleted over time, and then the yield is catastrophically reduced.If this happens, then it's time to use biological fertilizers that are completely harmless, lively, after getting into the soil forming a symbiosis with plants and contributing to both improving soil quality and increasing yields.